Atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased 30-plus per cent since pre-industrial times, trapping more heat in the lower atmosphere. The resulting climate change brings health risks ranging from deaths in extreme temperatures to changing patterns of infectious diseases.

Increased rainfall and higher temperatures could provide long-lasting conditions for disease vectors.

Extreme weather can lead to migrations and increased risk of disease transmission.

Climate change-related drought and desertification threatens the availability of water for consumption, food production, and medical care, including for infectious disease.

Infections that are transmitted through water, food, or by vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks are highly sensitive to weather and climate conditions.

During the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, climate change undermines the environmental conditions we need for good health — access to water, clean air, food and shelter.

TheLancet Countdown, a scientific collaboration between 35 institutions, found that climate suitability for disease transmission has increased for dengue, malaria and cholera, among other diseases.