Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) are relying more on casual or contractual employees, a government publication has shown. The number of regular employees has come down by around 10,000 in one year while the number of casual or contractual employees has gone up by around 48,000 in FY22. Also, the number of women employees has come down by over 3,800.

The publication, titled ‘Public Enterprises Survey 2021-22’, and prepared by the Department of Public Enterprises covered 389 CPSEs which includes 248 operating ones. It showed that CPSEs employed over 14.62 lakh as of FY22 as against over 14.23 lakh in FY21, a growth of 2.74 per cent. However, the current number is lower than the pre-pandemic level of around 14.80 lakh in FY20.

PF, gratuity factor

Further, FY22 data revealed that the total number of regular employees has come down to a little over 8.41 lakh (8.51 lakh in FY21), a decline of over 1 per cent. However, during the same period, the number of casual/daily rate workers rose by 2.38 per cent to over 96,000, while that r of contract worker/employees grew by around 10 per cent to over 5.24 lakh.

Though no reasons have been given for the same, it is believed thatstatutory payments such as PF, gratuity etc could be underlying factor. For regular employees, there is a need to provide money for all these payments, but same is not required for casual or contractual workers.

Another important element in this survey is the number of women employees, which saw a decline of around 4,000. Also, their share in total employees is yet to cross the double digit mark. Survey shows in FY22, women constituted 9.12 per cent (76,678) of total employees in CPSEs. This was a dip from the 80,525 recorded in FY21. Also, 33.7 per cent of total women in CPSEs represent at managerial/executive level while 9.19 per cent at supervisory level and 57.11 per cent in worker categories.


Net profit of profit-making CPSEs stood at ₹2.64-lakh crore in FY22 (₹1.89-lakh crore in FY21), an increase of 39.85 per cent. Top five CPSEs with highest net profits are ONGC, Indian Oil Corporation, Power Grid, NTPC and Steel Authority of India Ltd. The net loss of loss-incurring CPSEs stood at ₹0.15-lakh crore (₹0.23-lakh crore), a decrease of 37.82 per cent. Major loss-making CPSEs are BSNL, MTNL, Air India Assets Holding Ltd, Eastern Coalfields Ltd & AllianceAir Aviation Ltd.